Posts Tagged ‘Realismo’

How Much Fortune? Machiavelli and the Dilemma of Contingency

Num°12 LUCK

The register of political actions situates itself, for Machiavelli, in the relation between virtue and fortune. Fortune is that which escapes, it is the configuration given in a specific moment to the conflict that devastates the political space, namely the conflict between the many, who do not want to be dominated, and the great, who want to dominate. Leggi tutto »

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Numero 12 LUCK October, 2014 - Autore:


Issue 08 – Reality





In recent months, the philosophical and political debates have been characterized by an exorbitant frequency of the term “realism.” As usual, the suffix “-ism” is used to indicate “‘doctrines or attitudes’ (realism, heroism, …) or ‘physical or moral qualities or affections’ (alcoholism, … egoism).” The case is in fact that of a debate concerning the attitude that one should have with respect to reality. First of all, reality is to be taken seriously, it is an inescapable given with which we must come to terms. Amanda Berry, the young woman from Cleveland, was really kidnapped and kept captive with the other women for ten years. Unfortunately, this is not a product of the imagination. Leggi tutto »


Praise of Idealism

Image by Lauren Guilmette

In a society built on concepts of appearance and virtuality, the very invocation of “reality” seems to have an already thaumaturgic power. Yet, to think that embracing reality as a critical power may produce enlightenment is especially naive. The virtual world cannot be perforated by injections of realism but rather by opposing the appearance of the inessential with an ethical ideal that works for a transformation of society. Philosophy has an intrinsic idealistic vocation. The idealists are not naive individuals who find refuge in the construction of an ideal world for their own use and benefit; on the contrary, the idealists are those who do not find themselves at ease in the real world and therefore envisage, in an act of freedom, how the world ought to be.


Reality between essence and experience


Ever since the invitation, in the Logical Investigations, to “return to the things themselves,” the intention of the “new science” or phenomenology is clearly to establish, against all forms of subjectivism, that the thing is a phenomenon for consciousness. This appearance, however, does not imply that reality is to be understood as a mere matter of consciousness. Thing and consciousness rather meet as two distinct and irreducible identities. Each receives its sense by meeting the other within a horizon that is exactly between two different poles, which are independent but essentially correlated. The constitutive correlation – the intentional meeting between the two entities – allows for the formulation of a new concept of reality. Reality is the result of this intentional meeting: a consciousness perceives and experiences an essence in its identity. This essence “gives itself” directly to a consciousness that “responds to its references” and considers the self-giving of the thing.


Economics and Relations: The Difficult Way out of the Logic of Homo Oeconomicus


The model of the homo oeconomicus as a social agent whose only goal is the maximization of individual profit has been criticized for two decades at least. Yet, the wide debate on the crisis of such a model has not affected its popularity at the level of generalized sensibility. Therefore, understanding the reasons for such a success and asking whether the critiques truly hit the mark become important. After a brief excursus of the history of the concept, the essay investigates three cases of such critiques: B. S. Frey’s proposal of the homo oeconomicus maturus, the critique coming from the rediscovery of civil economics as proposed by S. Zamagni and L. Bruni, and the general anthropological rethinking caused by the theme of the gift. Through this path, the author argues for a specific thesis, namely, that in order to move “beyond” the homo oeconomicus implementing its model is not enough; rather, one needs to reformulate the anthropological vision that supports it.


Truth and Authority


Political constructivists (such as John Rawls) and pluralists (such as Bernard Williams) refrain from using truth in political matters and moral disagreements. They agree with relativists on the “polemical conception of truth,” which takes moral truths to enjoy only a local kind of normativity. Leggi tutto »

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