Numero 08 REALITY

Issue 08 – Reality





In recent months, the philosophical and political debates have been characterized by an exorbitant frequency of the term “realism.” As usual, the suffix “-ism” is used to indicate “‘doctrines or attitudes’ (realism, heroism, …) or ‘physical or moral qualities or affections’ (alcoholism, … egoism).” The case is in fact that of a debate concerning the attitude that one should have with respect to reality. First of all, reality is to be taken seriously, it is an inescapable given with which we must come to terms. Amanda Berry, the young woman from Cleveland, was really kidnapped and kept captive with the other women for ten years. Unfortunately, this is not a product of the imagination. Leggi tutto »


Dante and Reality/Dante and Realism (Paradiso)


The invitation to contribute to this issue of “SpazioFilosofico” begins with a distinction, one that turns out moreover to be quite hermeneutically useful when applied to Dante: “Il numero non si occupa di ‘realismo’, ma di realtà”. What made the invitation even more enticing is that the description of realism that follows seems to have been tailor-made as a definition of who Dante is as a poet: “Il realismo, in un senso molto ampio, è l’atteggiamento di chi non è disposto a tradire la realtà, o a voltare le spalle all’essere”. The heuristic intersection of Dante and reality with Dante and realism is the starting point for this investigation. Leggi tutto »


The Real, The Fictional and The Fake


real: actually existing as a thing or occurring in fact, objective, genuine, rightly so called, natural, sincere, not purely nominal or supposed or pretended or artificial or hypocritical or affected.

(Oxford English Dictionary)

For a while, as I mulled over Prof. Guglielminetti’s invitation to write a paper “about reality,” I felt somewhat at a loss. “What in the world isn’t real?” I wondered; and then, “Can I really write about everything—in 5,000 words or less?” Leggi tutto »


Hylas and Philonous ten years after


Ten years after the first, this is the second chapter of the dialogue between Hylas (alias Maurizio Ferraris) and Philonous (alias Achille C. Varzi), one of the decisive texts in the debate of new realism. There is, however, a small yet decisive shift in focus—from what is there to what could be there.


What there could be


The essay consists of two sections. The first section is an attempt to see how an ontology could look like from an anti-reductionist point of view. Given the intertwining between ontology and epistemology, the idea is stressed according to which the fundamental ontological aim is best accomplished not by asking “What is there?” but “What could there be?” The second section focuses on Hilary Putnam’s metaphysical stance, highlights the phenomenon of “conceptual relativity,” and tries to clarify the sense in which Putnam deems that the very project of ontology amounts to flogging a dead horse.


The Rationality of the Actual


The identity of rational and actual is placed by Hegel within an ethical-political context, yet its general meaning is ontological. It indicates that the actuality of the finite has its truth in the logical and conceptual determinations of the Idea. In this sense, in its essence the world has a logical-conceptual nature. This general ontological meaning is no longer acceptable for the contemporary philosophical consciousness. After the end of the metaphysical idea of substantial reason, the unity of actual and rational can be understood in a more limited and weakened sense. Our rationality cannot be considered only as a property of the subjective nature of the individual, but as the product of a learning process that has its basis in the social space of reasons. Although the world remains independent of our knowledge, nevertheless our knowledge of it finds its condition of possibility in social reason.


Reality and Poverty


The essay examines the myth of Prometheus and Epimetheus narrated by Plato in the Protagoras and investigates what in it remains insufficient (sophistic) when considered from Plato’s point of view. The answer is that in the myth, being is without remedy and technique provides a remedy for it. Plato seems instead to suggest the hypothesis that being itself is a kind of technique. There is no being without an addition (a prosthesis) of goodness. The remedy is thus not simply an external addition suggested by the pressing practical needs of humans; rather, it is a characteristic of being itself, and simply for this—in the form of culture—it is also an anthropological feature.

porno porno izle porno porno film izle